A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The origin of the Bolognese is confused with that of the Maltese, because their distant ancestors are the same little dogs mentioned in Latin by Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) under the denomination of canes melitenses. Bolognese, already known in the Roman era appears most especially among the very appreciated gifts, which were made during a whole era by the people of power of that world. Cosimo de Medici (1389–1464) brought no less than eight to Brussels as gifts to as many Belgian noblemen. Philipe II, king of Spain 1556–1598, after having received two as a gift from the Duke d’Este, thanked him in writing saying, ” These little dogs are the most royal gifts one can give to an emperor”. Bolognese are represented in paintings by Titian, Pierre Breughel called le Vieux and Goya.
Small size, stocky and compact, covered with a pure white coat, long and fluffy.
Square built, the length of the body being equal to the height at the withers. Length of head reaching 1/3 of the height at the withers. Depth of chest almost half of the height at the withers.
Very serene, generally not very active. Eventful but calm very faithful to his master and his entourage.
Medium long. The width, measured at the level of the zygomatic arches is the same as the length.
Skull: Of slightly ovoid (egg shaped) shape in the sagittal direction and has rather convex sides; rather flat in its upper part. The protuberances of the frontal bones are well developed. The longitudinal axes of the skull and muzzle are parallel; the frontal furrow is only slightly accentuated as is also the occipital protuberance. The length of the skull is slightly more than that of the muzzle.
Stop: Rather accentuated.
Nose: Set on the same line as the topline of the muzzle; seen in profile the front vertical. Large and must be black.
Muzzle: Its length is equal to 2/5 of the length of the head; the topline of the muzzle is straight and the sides of the muzzle are parallel, so that the forepart of the muzzle is almost square. The lower orbital region is well chiselled.
Lips: Upper lips being only slightly developed in depth, they do not cover the bottom lips, and the lower profile of the muzzle is determined by the lower jaw
Jaws/Teeth: Jaws normally developed, with top and bottom arches perfectly adapted. Teeth white, evenly aligned, with strong and complete dentition. Articulation of incisors as scissor bite; pincer bite tolerated.
Eyes: Set on an almost frontal plane; size slightly superior to normal. Eyelid opening is round; the eyeball must not be prominent; the white of the eye is not visible. The rims of the eyelids must be black, and the iris of a dark ochre colour.
Ears: High set, they are long and hanging, but rather rigid at their base, so that the upper part of the external ear is detached from the skull, thus giving the impression of the head being larger than it really is.
Without dewlap; its length is equal to the length of the head.
The dog being of a square construction, the length of the body, measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock bone is equal to that of the height at the withers.
Top line: The straight profile of the back and that of the loin, slightly convex, merge harmoniously in the line of the croup.
Withers: Only slightly prominent above the top line.
Loin: Short, strong, slightly convex.
Croup: Very broad and only slightly sloping.
Chest: Ample, let down to level of elbows, with well sprung ribs, the height reaching almost half of the height at the withers. The point of the sternum is only slightly prominent.
Underline and belly: Following the profile of the sternum, then rises slightly towards the belly.
Set in the line of the croup, carried curved over the back.
General appearance: Forearms are perfectly straight and parallel in relation to the median plane of the body.
Shoulders: The length of the shoulder blades is equal to 1/4 of the height at the withers; in relation to the horizontal, they are slanting and are near the vertical in relation to the median plane of the body.
Upper Arm: Well joined to the body, of an almost equal length to that of the shoulder, but less slanting.
Elbows: They are on a parallel plane to the median plane of the body.
Forearm: The length is equal to that of the upper arm; follows a perfect vertical direction.
Metacarpus (Pastern): Seen from the front, they continue the vertical line of the forearm. Seen in profile, the pastern is a little bit slanting.
Forefeet: Oval shaped, with well cushioned dark pads and very hard black nails.
General appearance: Viewed from behind, the hind legs must follow from the point of the buttock bone to the ground in a perfectly vertical line - legs are parallel to each other.
Thigh: Their length is equal to 1/3rd of the height of the withers. Slanting from top to bottom and back to front and perfectly parallel to the median plane of the body.
Stifle (Knee): Firm, not very angled.
Lower Thigh: Longer than the thigh.
Hock Joint: The tibio-tarsal angle is not very closed.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern):
The distance from the point of the hock to the ground is slightly less than a third of the height at the withers.
Hindfeet: Same characteristics as the forefeet, but less oval.
Free, energetic, with a noble and distinguished head carriage.
Taut and tightly fitted to the body all over, the third eyelids strictly pigmented black.
HAIR: Long all over the body, from head to tail, from the top line to the feet. It is shorter on the muzzle. Forms long flocks that have the same texture all over the body, rather off-standing coat thus not falling flat and tight, never shows fringes.
COLOUR: Pure white, very slight shades of ivory are not disqualifying.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at the withers: Males 27 to 30cm.
Females 25 to 28cm.
Weight: From 2,5 to 4kg.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
• Strabismus (squinting)
• Accentuated convergence or divergence of the upper longitudinal axes
• Convex muzzle (Roman nose)
• Size in males under 25cm and more than 33cm and size in females under 22cm or more than 32cm.
• Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• Depigmentation of the nose
• Nose of any other colour than black
• Very exaggerated with teeth showing and mal – shaped muzzle.
• Bilateral depigmentation of the eyelids
• Shortened tail, whether natural or artificial
• Any other colour than white
• Patches and flecks
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only clinically and functionally healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.
Copyright FCI 20.04.1998 - Reprinted with permission
The publisher of this edition is the Kennel Union of Southern Africa. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system of transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without permission in writing from the publisher.
FCI Standard No 196 (Grp 9)
Most recent changes to this schedule has an effective date of 01.01.2017